“Materials are the things that you need for a particular activity.” (Collins English Dictionary, 2018)

Materials/Curriculum materials

“Teachers can contribute to the curriculum in different ways: they may be enactors of the curriculum, that is, they implement ready-made materials (and more or less align with the designers’ intentions). Equally, they may use ready-made materials “creatively”: they use given materials to try out new activities and improvise in the moments of enactment. Another way would be to redesign mathematics curriculum materials via making small, systematic changes or adjustments, mostly based on their earlier experiences in class. Even when they use the same curriculum materials (e.g., textbooks), they frequently adapt these to accommodate the varied needs of their students.” (Pepin et al., 2019, p. 126)

Digital materials

“[…] teacher interaction with curriculum materials, in particular with digital materials, is at the centre of interest of mathematics teacher education as a scientific field. The processes involved (including design and enactment) are complex, taking place in different environments (e.g., school, home), and with many aspects interacting and influencing them (e.g. national curriculum; textbooks; school facilities for collaborative work).” (Trouche et al., 2019)


Collins English Dictionary (13th edition) (2018). HarperCollins: Glasgow.

Pepin, B., Artigue, M., Gitirana, M., Miyakawa, T., Ruthven, K., & Xu, B. (2019). Mathematics teachers as curriculum designers: An international perspective to develop a deeper understanding of the concept. In L. Trouche, G. Gueudet, & B. Pepin (Eds.), The resources approach to mathematics education (pp. 121–144).

Trouche, L., Gitirana, V., Miyakawa, T., Pepin, B., & Wang, C. (2019). Studying mathematics teachers interactions with curriculum materials through different lenses: towards a deeper understanding of the processes at stake. International Journal of Educational Research, 93, 53–67.