“The frameworks described strong interactions between STEM disciplines (e.g., didactical approaches, problem solving, contents) and how important the transdisciplinary approach is. Findings from the studies indicated the need to connect STEM to real-world or as we wrote earlier, to students’ living environments. However, there are various recommended teaching approaches and experiences for implementing STEM integrated teachings.” (Haas et al., 2021) 

“Transdisciplinarity approaches call for a synthesis of research at the stages of conceptualization, design, and interpretation by integrated team approaches … the explicit intent to solve problems that are complex and multidimensional, particularly problems (such as those related to sustainability) that involve an interface of human and natural systems”. (Ertas 2010)

“This is a critical, expansive and emergent vision of transdisciplinarity. It is expansive and emergent in the sense that transdisciplinarity is experienced as ‘reflexive formations and practices’ (Sengupta et al., 2019, p. 4), where learning in one discipline can be deepened through engaging with other disciplinary lenses. At the same time, this is not merely an act of seeing more (Higgins, 2008) – rather seeing more critically and historically (Gutiérrez, 2016; Sengupta et al., 2019)”. (Takeuchi et al. 2020)


Ertas, A. 2010. Understanding of transdiscipline and transdisciplinary process. Transdisciplinary Journal of Engineering & Science 1(1): 54–73.

Haas, Ben, Kreis, Yves, & Lavicza, Zsolt. (2021). Integrated STEAM Approach in Outdoor Trails with Elementary School Pre-service Teachers. Educational Technology & Society, 24(4), 205-219.

Takeuchi, Miwa A, Sengupta, Pratim, Shanahan, Marie-Claire, Adams, Jennifer D, & Hachem, Maryam. (2020). Transdisciplinarity in STEM education: A critical review. Studies in Science Education, 56(2), 213-253.